The Radiance lighting simulation program was used extensively throughout this project to produce data and images for the owner, lighting designer, and manufacturers at the pre-bid, post-bid shop drawing, and commissioning phases of this project. Radiance, developed by LBNL, produces photorealistic images and data given 3-D input of the building geometry and surrounding urban context as well as reflectance properties of the various surfaces. LBNL and Anyhere Software created a detailed three-story interior model of the Times Building tower and a model of the entire building placed within the urban context of Manhattan. Automated control of the shades and electric lighting system was simulated.
Initially, simulations were performed to help the building owner visualize and understand the energy and visual comfort implications of automated shade design and control alternatives that were under consideration in the pre-bid phase. In the post-bid phase, Radiance studies were used to assist the selected manufacturers with the practical aspects of defining zones and sensor locations on shop drawings and selecting fabrics for various floors and façade orientations for engineering shop drawings that needed to be submitted to the Times Company in the first quarter of 2005. Data were also provided to help the manufacturers understand if their control systems would be reliable under the specific daylighting conditions within a complex urban environment. Images were produced to help both the Times Company and the manufacturers understand the dynamics of the daylight within the space over different days throughout the year and on different floors of the building.
These Radiance simulations and more are documented in the final reports, found in the Publications section.