This document, the *THERM 2.1 NFRC Simulation Manual*, discusses how to use THERM to model products for NFRC certified simulations and assumes that the user is already familiar with the THERM program. In order to learn how to use THERM, it is necessary to become familiar with the material in the *THERM User's Manual*.

In general, this manual references the *THERM User's Manual* rather than repeating the information.

If there is a conflict between the *THERM User's Manual* and the *THERM 2.1 NFRC Simulation Manual*, the *THERM 2.1 NFRC Simulation Manual* takes precedence.

THERM 2.0 is a state-of-the-art software program, available without cost, that uses the finite-element method to model steady-state, two-dimensional heat-transfer problems. It includes a powerful simulation engine combined with a simple, interactive interface and graphic results. Although it was developed primarily to model thermal properties of windows, it is appropriate for other building components such as walls, doors, roofs, and foundations, and is useful for modeling thermal bridges in many other contexts, such as the design of equipment.

1 aHuizenga, Charlie1 aArasteh, Dariush, K.1 aFinlayson, Elizabeth, U.1 aMitchell, Robin1 aGriffith, Brent, T.1 aCurcija, Dragan, C. uhttps://facades.lbl.gov/publications/therm-20-building-component-model02296nas a2200169 4500008004100000024001100041245004100052210004100093260001200134520179000146100002201936700002901958700002201987700002002009700002102029856007602050 1999 eng d aBS 42200aToward a Virtual Building Laboratory0 aToward a Virtual Building Laboratory c03/19993 aBuildings account for about one-third of all energy used in the US and about two-thirds of all electricity, with associated environmental impacts.(EIA 1996) After more than 20 years of DOE-supported research universities and national laboratories, a great deal is known about the energy performance of buildings and especially their components and subsystems. The development and market introduction of improved energy efficient technology, such as low-E windows and electronic ballasts, have helped reduce energy use, and the resultant savings will increase, as use of the new technologies becomes more widespread. A variety of approaches to speed market penetration have been and are being pursued, including information dissemination, research to evaluate performance and development of computer tools for making energy performance simulations available to architects and engineers at the earliest design stages. Public-domain computer building energy simulation models, (BLAST_Support_Office 1992; Winkelmann, Birdsall et al. 1993) a controversial idea 20 years ago, have been extremely successful in facilitating the design of more energy-efficient buildings and providing the technical basis for improved state building codes, federal guidelines, and voluntary standards. But the full potential of savings, estimated at 50% of current consumption or $100 billion/year, (Bevington and Rosenfeld 1990; Todesco 1996; Holdren 1997; Kolderup and Syphers 1997; ORNL, LBNL et al. 1997) will require that architects and engineers take an integrated look at buildings beginning in the early design phase, with increasing use of sophisticated, complex and interrelated building systems. This puts a greater burden on the designer and engineer to make accurate engineering decisions.

1 aKlems, Joseph, H.1 aFinlayson, Elizabeth, U.1 aOlsen, Thomas, H.1 aBanks, David, W1 aPallis, Jani, M. uhttps://facades.lbl.gov/publications/toward-virtual-building-laboratory01900nas a2200181 4500008004100000050001500041245014300056210006900199260002500268490001600293520122000309100002201529700002501551700002901576700002001605700002401625856006901649 1998 eng d aLBNL-4210200aTeaching Students about Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer Effects in Buildings, Building Components, Equipment, and Appliances Using THERM 2.00 aTeaching Students about TwoDimensional Heat Transfer Effects in aChicago, ILc01/19990 v105, Part 13 aTHERM 2.0 is a state-of-the-art software program, available for free, that uses the finite-element method to model steady-state, two-dimensional heat-transfer effects. It is being used internationally in graduate and undergraduate laboratories and classes as an interactive educational tool to help students gain a better understanding of heat transfer. THERM offers students a powerful simulation engine combined with a simple, interactive interface and graphic results. Although it was developed to model thermal properties of building components such as windows, walls, doors, roofs, and foundations, it is useful for modeling thermal bridges in many other contexts, such as the design of equipment. These capabilities make THERM a useful teaching tool in classes on: heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC); energy conservation; building design; and other subjects where heat-transfer theory and applications are important. THERMs state-of-the-art interface and graphic presentation allow students to see heat-transfer paths and to learn how changes in materials affect heat transfer. THERM is an excellent tool for helping students understand the practical application of heat-transfer theory.

1 aHuizenga, Charlie1 aArasteh, Dariush, K.1 aFinlayson, Elizabeth, U.1 aMitchell, Robin1 aGriffith, Brent, T. uhttps://facades.lbl.gov/publications/teaching-students-about-two01730nas a2200157 4500008004100000050002100041245009800062210006900160520114800229100002901377700002001406700002501426700002201451700002401473856007501497 1998 eng d aLBL-37371 Rev. 200aTHERM 2.0: a PC Program for Analyzing Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer through Building products0 aTHERM 20 a PC Program for Analyzing TwoDimensional Heat Transfer3 aTHERM is a state-of-the-art, Microsoft Windows?-based computer program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for use by building component manufacturers, engineers, educators, students, architects, and others interested in heat transfer. Using THERM, you can model two-dimensional heat-transfer effects in building components such as windows, walls, foundations, roofs, and doors; appliances; and other products where thermal bridges are of concern. THERM's heat-transfer analysis allows you to evaluate a product?s energy efficiency and local temperature patterns, which may relate directly to problems with condensation, moisture damage, and structural integrity.

This version of THERM includes several new technical and user interface features; the most significant is a radiation view-factor algorithm. This feature increases the accuracy of calculations in situations where you are analyzing non-planar surfaces that have different temperatures and exchange energy through radiation heat transfer. This heat-transfer mechanism is important in greenhouse windows, hollow cavities, and some aluminum frames.

1 aFinlayson, Elizabeth, U.1 aMitchell, Robin1 aArasteh, Dariush, K.1 aHuizenga, Charlie1 aCurcija, Dragan, C. uhttps://facades.lbl.gov/publications/therm-20-pc-program-analyzing-two