Optical Indices of Lithiated Electrochromic Oxides

TitleOptical Indices of Lithiated Electrochromic Oxides
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1996
AuthorsMichael D Rubin, Klaus von Rottkay, Shi-Jie Wen, Nilgün Özer, Jonathan L Slack
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Date Published07/1998

Optical indices have been determined for thin films of several electrochromic oxide materials. One of the most important materials in electrochromic devices, WO3, was thoroughly characterized for a range of electrochromic states by sequential injection of Li ions. Another promising material, Li0.5Ni0.5O, was also studied in detail. Less detailed results are presented for three other common lithium-intercalating electrochromic electrode materials: V2O5, LiCoO2, and CeO2-TiO2. The films were grown by sputtering, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and sol-gel techniques. Measurements were made using a combination of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectroradiometry. The optical constants were then extracted using physical and spectral models appropriate to each material. Optical indices of the underlying transparent conductors, determined in separate studies, were fixed in the models of this work. The optical models frequently agree well with independent physical measurements of film structure, particularly surface roughness by atomic force microscopy. Inhomogeneity due to surface roughness, gradient composition, and phase separation are common in both the transparent conductors and electrochromics, resulting sometimes in particularly complex models for these materials. Complete sets of data are presented over the entire solar spectrum for a range of colored states. This data is suitable for prediction of additional optical properties such as oblique transmittance and design of complete electrochromic devices.

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